Safety & Operations
20 months
Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Center for Zero Carbon Shipping
Status: Ongoing

Ammonia Safety Study

Published — August 29, 2022

The Ammonia pathway will remain constrained until safety concerns are addressed, therefore proper risk management is a key transition enabler. The project will provide a deep understanding of the risks to help guide the safe application and risk management of ammonia as marine fuel onboard ships, considering three different vessel segments: container, bulker, and tanker vessel.

Project Objective

To quantify the risks related to the use of ammonia as fuel and provide safeguard solutions for ammonia fueled vessels.

The project is conducted in phases, where Phase 1 performed a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) investigating the risk of fatality due to unintended leaks of ammonia from fuel system designs for a container feeder vessel, Panamax bulker and an MR tanker. The QRA model was developed by LR, and covers bunkering, storage, fuel preparation, fuel supply and regulation and consumers (engines and boiler). The risk of fatality was determined and compared against established criteria. Furthermore, the risk related to key equipment items and spaces containing this equipment was illustrated. Thereby, the location specific individual risk (LSIR) and individual risk per Annum (IRPA) were determined. The highest risk locations across all vessel segments were found to be the area with Ammonia containing equipment like the fuel preparation room and tank connection space.

The second phase of the project takes a deep dive on the previously identified risk areas and analyses risk mitigation from both a technical and human perspective. The aim of Phase 2 is to deliver a multi-stakeholder joint view on the necessary mitigating actions and safeguards. For technical risk mitigation further risk analysis will be conducted and the risk in reference designs will be reduced to ‘As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP)’ by testing alternative design solutions in the QRA model. Whereas for human risk mitigation, a deeper investigation into risk identification needs to take place where competence, training and safety system requirements will be considered, in order to improve understanding of risks to develop appropriate guidance.

The overall outcome of the project is to publish a report covering documentation of assumptions, methodology, reference designs and risk calculations, quantifying the risks and design of intelligent safeguards.

Project Milestones: Phase 1

April 2021

Project kick-off

July 2021

Container ref. design

September 2021

Bulker ref. design

December 2021

Tanker ref. design

February 2022

Risk calculations and conclusions

Project Milestones: Phase 2

September 2022

Hazid and historical data review

October 2022

Venting study

November 2022

Engine Room CDF study

November 2022

Ship Impact study

October 2022

Design optimization to reduce risk ALARP

November 2022

Scaling study

November 2022

Human factor study
Working document

Human Factors Considerations: Ammonia Fuel End-of-Stage Report

This end of stage report serves as project document supporting the publication “Recommendations for Design and Operation of Ammonia-Fueled Vessels Based on Multi-disciplinary Risk Analysis”